To navigate in space, techniques used in sea and air are employed.
There are new method of space navigation like exploiting star sightings, accurate timing and
Navigating in space basically needs:
1)Planning your mission to navigating to another space destination eg.a planet.
2)Distance of the intended destination needed to be precisely calculated.
3)Take into account the motion of the spacecraft and the destination planet, asteriod and etc.
4)Limitation of power available for space communication to and fro from the spacecraft and earth. Signals may take hours to reach earth which means slow response.
5)Gravity of the sun, planets and moons have to be taken into account to determine the trajectory of the spacecraft.
(Credit:scienceandtechnology.jpl.nasa.gov & timeandnavigation.si.edu)